French Possessive Adjectives: Mon, Ton, Son, and More | OptiLingo (2023)

Learn French Possessive Adjectives

How do you say “my” in French? What’s the difference between sa and son? Do I use leur or leurs? French possessive adjectives show who or whom the noun belongs to. Don’t worry, this part of French grammar is not difficult to master at all. These examples will show you clearly. Learn all their forms, how to use them, and when you can add French possessive adjectives to sentences. Develop your French fluency effortlessly.

Adjectifs possessifs

Singular Masculin Noun

Singular Feminin Noun

Plural (Masculin and Feminin)



ma (mon)




ta (ton)




sa (son)















Rules of French Possessive Adjectives

French possessive adjectives or “adjectifs possessifs” are used in the French to show who or whom the noun belongs to. Possessive adjectives in French are more complicated than in English. In French, adjectives have several forms according to the number or gender of the possessed noun. The following are characteristics of possessive adjectives French.

  1. They are not used together with an article but in its place.
  2. French possessive adjectives are directly placed in front of the noun or adjective.
  3. They have to correspond with the gender and number of the possessed noun.
  4. A possessive pronoun can be used to replace it when it is used together with a noun in a sentence.
  5. They’re not affected by the speaker’s gender.

French Possessive Adjectives: Mon, Ton, Son, and More | OptiLingo (1)

When Do You Use French Possessive Adjectives?

As mentioned earlier, every French noun is either masculine or feminine, even when speaking of things like chairs and books. In French whatever possession adjective is used is determined by the gender of the possessed noun. A possessive adjective in French explains the ownership attribute of the noun it is referring to. The adjectives indicate the owner of the noun they are describing.

In French grammar, both written and spoken possessive adjective precedes a noun. Unlike regular adjectives, possessive adjectives take the place of articles. For example, the French version of the article “the”, “le,” “la”, or “les” is replaced with a possessive adjective in the following sentence. I would say “mon livre,” which means “my book,” to show that the book in question is indeed mine.

However, the French possessive adjectives aren’t determined by gender alone but also whether the noun is singular or plural.

(Video) Practise your French Possessive Adjectives - "Mon, ton, son, notre, votre, leur"

Use Possessive Adjectives Before Every Noun in a List

When listing down nouns, French possessive must be used in front of every noun. In English, the possessive adjective only needs to be used once. For example;

  • Mon fils, ma fille et mes petits-enfants. – My son, daughter, and grandchildren.

The adjectives “mon,” “ma,” and “mes,” have to appear before the nouns. In English, you only need one adjective in the phrase, that is, “My son, daughter, and grandchildren.” This is because French possessive adjectives change their forms according to the noun. If some nouns in the list are masculine, while others are feminine, they need different adjectives before them.

Watch Out When Describing of Body Parts

When describing body parts in French, the language uses pronominal verbs instead of possessive adjectives. For example:

  • Je me brosse les dents. – I brush my teeth.
  • Je me suis cassé le bras. – I broke my arm.

French Possessive Adjectives: Mon, Ton, Son, and More | OptiLingo (2)

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(Video) French possessive adjectives | Mon Ma Mes - Ton Ta Tes - Etc.

The Exception of Feminine Possessive Adjectives and Vowels

You may have noticed that there are two versions for French possessive adjectives next to feminine singular. That’s because “ma,” ”ta,” and “sa” (my, your, and his/her) cannot be used preceding a noun that starts with a vowel. Just like the versions of the article “the,” “le” and “la” drop a letter and become “l” when they come before a noun that starts with a vowel. However, the three feminine possessive adjectives change completely instead of just dropping a letter.

However, they do not introduce an entirely new form. A feminine possessive adjective in the French language transforms itself into a male possessive adjective when it appears before a feminine noun that starts with a vowel.

In simple terms, ma (my), becomes mon, ta (your) becomes ton, and sa (his/her) becomes son before nouns that begin with vowels.

(Video) Possessive Adjectives in French - Mon, ton, son...

Take a look at the following examples of possessive adjectives changing shape in French.

  • C’est mon amie. – She’s my friend.
  • Je vais à ton école. – I go to your school.
  • C’est son idée. – It’s his/her idea.

“C’est mon amie” instead of “c’est ma amie” because we cannot put “ma” in front of “amie” which starts with a vowel. Even though “école” is female, but we cannot use “ta” in front of it because it starts with a vowel. Similarly, although “idée” is feminine, we cannot put ”sa” in front of it because of the vowel, and so, we use “son.”

French Possessive Adjectives: Mon, Ton, Son, and More | OptiLingo (3)

Examples of French Possessive Adjectives in Context

Having established that French possessive adjectives aren’t only affected by gender but by plurality or singularity of the noun, let us look at them in active sentences. Consider the sentence below.

That’s my book. or That’s my car.

Since book is le livre in French, it’s a masculin noun. So, for the singular object, we need to use the masculin version. And la voiture for car is feminin. A possessive adjective remains the same for plural words in French regardless of whether the possessed noun is male or female.

My – Mon, Ma, Mes

  • C’est mon livre. – That’s my book. (Singular male object)
  • C’est ma voiture. – That’s my car. (Singular female object)
  • Ce sont mes livres. – Those books are mine. (Plural male object)

Your – Ton, Ta, Tes

  • C’est ton livre. – That’s your book. (Singular male object)
  • C’est ta voiture. – That’s your car. (Singular female object)
  • Ce sont tes livres. – Those are your books. (Plural male object)

His/Her – Son, Sa, Ses

The French language does not distinguish between the third person tense possessive adjectives, “his” and “her” like in the English language.

(Video) French Possessive Adjectives (Masculine Singular)

Examples are, “son” can be used to mean “his” or “her” for masculine nouns that follow the adjective, and “sa” can mean “his” or “her” for feminine nouns that follow the adjective. For plural nouns that follow the adjective, “ses” means “his” or “hers,” both masculine and feminine nouns in plurality. For example;

  • C’est son livre. That’s his/her book.
  • C’est sa voiture. That’s his/her car.

Our – Notre, Nos

In the case of the possessive noun “our,” the French language uses “notre” for singular nouns following the adjective, and “nos” in case the noun that follows the adjective is plural. For example;

  • C’est notre livre. – It’s our book.
  • Voilà notre livre. – There’s our book.
  • Ce sont nos livres. – Those are our books.

Your – Votre, Vos

Understanding possessive adjectives become even more straightforward. The French language uses “votre” to say that something belongs to all of you, for both male and female noun scenarios. In case the noun is plural, the French word to use is “vos.”

  • C’est votre livre. – That is your book.
  • C’est votre livre. – That’s your book.
  • Ce sont vos livres. – These are your books.

Their – Leur, Leurs

Finally, there is the possessive adjective “their,” which translates to “leur” for both male and female nouns in the singular form. The plural form leurs can be used for both masculine and feminine versions of “their.”

  • C’est leur stylo. – It’s their pen.
  • C’est leur television. – It’s their television.
  • Ce sont leurs televisions. – These are their televisions.

Learn French Easily

French possessive adjectives change according to the gender and number of the noun. You can now use them confidently in French sentences. But, there’s a lot more to French grammar that you will need to become fluent in French. If you want to master them in a natural environment, you need to download OptiLingo.

This language learning app gives you the most common French words and phrases. So, you learn exactly how the locals speak. This gives you an insight into the natural use of French grammar. Download OptiLingo, and discover how much more enjoyable learning French grammar can be!

(Video) French Possessive Adjectives | Les Adjectifs Possessifs (Mon, Ton, Son..) Learn French for Beginners


What are the French possessive adjectives? ›

The masculine singular possessive adjectives are: mon, ton, son, notre, votre, leur. The feminine singular possessive adjectives are: ma, ta, sa, notre, votre, leur. The plural possessive adjectives are the same for both genders: mes, tes, ses, nos, vos, leurs.

What are the 4 types of adjectives French? ›

This means that French adjectives can have up to four different forms: masculine singular; feminine singular; masculine plural; and feminine plural. Sounds complicated? Don't panic! It's simpler than it seems.

Is mon a possessive adjective? ›

Possessive adjectives show who something or someone belongs to. They come before the noun and agree with that noun, not the subject of the sentence.

Why is mon Ton and son used for Amie? ›

Remember that mon, ton or son are used before a feminine word starting with a vowel or silent -h. This is to help with pronunciation. For example: une amie (feminine singular) → mon amie arrive à dix heures - my friend's coming at 10 o'clock.

What are the 20 adjectives in French? ›

List of French adjectives – masculine and feminine
  • grand(e) – big/tall.
  • petit(e) – small.
  • bon(ne) – good.
  • mauvais(e) – bad.
  • beau/belle – beautiful.
  • chaud(e) – hot.
  • froid(e) – cold.
  • gentil(le) – kind.
30 Oct 2020

What are the 7 possessive adjectives? ›

Possessive adjectives are my, your, his, her, its, our, their.

What are the big 4 verbs in French? ›

Big 4 French verbs
  • etre = to be.
  • avoir = to have.
  • aller = to go.
  • faire = to do.

What are 5 verbs in French? ›

50 Commonly Used French Verbs to Launch You into the Language
  • Être (to be)
  • Avoir (to have)
  • Aller (to go)
  • Pouvoir (to be able to)
  • Vouloir (to want)
  • Faire (to do)
  • Parler (to speak)
  • Demander (to ask)
1 Jun 2022

What are the 17 verbs in French? ›

allé, arrivé, venu, revenu, entré, rentré, descendu, devenu, sorti, parti, resté, retourné, monté, tombé, né et mort.

How do you use mon Ton Son? ›

In simple terms, ma (my), becomes mon, ta (your) becomes ton, and sa (his/her) becomes son before nouns that begin with vowels.

How do you use mon in French? ›

Mon is used for masculine nouns. It is also used for feminine words that start with vowels or silent h. Ma is used for feminine nouns that start with consonants. Mes is the plural of both mon and ma.

What is the difference between TA and ton in French? ›

Ton / Ta / Tes (Your)

In this case, if the following word is masculine, we say ton (your). If the word is feminine, we say ta (your). And if the word is plural, we say tes (your) for both masculine and feminine nouns. Ceci est ton café !

Is it correct to say Ma Amie? ›

It is 'Mon Amie' and not 'Ma Amie'. As the word 'Amie' starts with a vowel 'A' we must use 'Mon' regardless of the gender.

What does Ma Amie mean? ›

Translation of "mon amie" in English. Noun. my friend. my girlfriend. my girl my dear friend.

Why is it mon amie not Ma Amie? ›

For example, we would say 'mon frère' for 'my brother', but 'ma soeur' for 'my sister'. However, when a feminine word starts with a vowel, we change the adjective to masculine to make the whole thing sound smoother.It is a weird rule to learn, but it makes the pronunciation easier.

What are adjectives 100 examples? ›

100 Adjectives, Comparatives and Superlatives List
10 more rows

What are adjectives give 20 examples? ›

Examples of adjectives
  • They live in a beautiful house.
  • Lisa is wearing a sleeveless shirt today. This soup is not edible.
  • She wore a beautiful dress.
  • He writes meaningless letters.
  • This shop is much nicer.
  • She wore a beautiful dress.
  • Ben is an adorable baby.
  • Linda's hair is gorgeous.

What are the 10 examples of possessive pronoun? ›

Possessive pronouns include my, mine, our, ours, its, his, her, hers, their, theirs, your and yours. These are all words that demonstrate ownership.

What are the 12 possessive pronouns? ›

The independent possessive pronouns are mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, and theirs. The possessive adjectives, also called possessive determiners, are my, our, your, his, her, its, and their.

What are 10 examples of possessive nouns? ›

A possessive noun shows ownership by adding an apostrophe, an "s" or both.
Here are examples of plural possessive nouns:
  • Cattle's pasture.
  • Geese's eggs.
  • Women's clothes.
  • Children's toys.
  • Mice's traps.
  • People's ideas.
  • Feet's toenails.
  • Nuclei's form.

What are 10 ER verbs in French? ›

Some Common -er verbs
  • Aimer (to like, to love)
  • Changer (to change)
  • Demander (to ask)
  • Écouter (to listen)
  • Fabriquer (to make)
  • Habiter (to live)
  • Jouer (to play)
  • Manger (to eat)
29 Jan 2022

What are 10 French words? ›

Learn Some Common French Words
  • Bonjour = Hello, Good morning.
  • Au revoir = Goodbye.
  • Oui = Yes.
  • Non = No.
  • Merci = Thank you.
  • Merci beaucoup = Thank you very much.
  • Fille = Girl.
  • Garçon = Boy.

What are the 10 prepositions in French? ›

10 Essential French Prepositions
  • 1 – à (to, at, in + city). ...
  • 2 – de (from, of, about). ...
  • 3 – chez (at/to someone's place). ...
  • 4 – en (in, by). ...
  • 5 – sur ≠ sous (on ≠ under). ...
  • 6 – au dessus de ≠ en dessous de (above ≠ under – without touching the object)
16 Jun 2021

What are the 7 tenses in French? ›

French Indicative Verb Tenses
  • Présent (present) ...
  • Imparfait (imperfect) ...
  • Passé simple (simple past) ...
  • Passé composé (past perfect) ...
  • Futur simple (future simple) ...
  • Plus-que-parfait (pluperfect) ...
  • Passé antérieur (past anterior)
  • Futur antérieur (future anterior)
18 Sept 2020

What are the top 20 French verbs? ›

Master French conjugation: 20 Most widely used French verbs and their conjugation
  • Être (to be)
  • Avoir (to have)
  • Aller (to go)
  • Parler (to speak/talk)
  • Faire (to do)
  • Prendre (to take)
  • Vouloir (to want)
  • Savoir (to know)
12 Sept 2022

What are 3 ways to say your in French? ›

The equivalent of your in French is ton/ta/tes for someone you call tu, or votre/vos for someone you call vous.

Is it Ma Soeur or mon Soeur? ›


In French it does and so you have to say: Mon frère, my brother masculin singulier. Ma soeur, my sister féminin singulier. Mes parents, my parents pluriel and it doesn't matter if it's masculin or féminin.

Is mon mere correct? ›

Like most of the adjectives in French, the possessive adjective agrees in number and gender with the noun that comes after it. Example : Ma mère (feminine, singular) => My mother. Mon père (masculine, singular) => My father.

Is TA feminine or ton in French? ›

For a feminine singular noun beginning with a vowel or a muted H, the masculine singular form (mon, ton, son) are used in place of ma, ta, sa.

What's the difference between Nos and Notre? ›

Notre is a possessive adjective and can be easily replaced by nos in plural. Nôtre is a possessive pronoun. It is always after le or la.

What's the difference between Vos and Votre? ›

The difference between “votre” and “vos” is that “votre” is the singular form of your while “vos” is the plural form.

What is the meaning of Ma Vie? ›

English Translation. my life.

What is Ma amour? ›

There aren't many French terms of endearment more romantic than mon amour, which means “my love” in French.

Does Mon Ami Gabi mean? ›

The restaurant name, Mon Ami Gabi, translates into "My Friend Gabi".

› revision › grammar › commo... ›

Learn about Common mistakes with mon/ma/mes, ton/ta/tes and son/sa/ses (French Possessive Adjectives) and get fluent faster with Kwiziq French. Access a persona...
Today, I want to talk to you about one of the most common clichés in French — “mon ami” — and why you should never use it in French conversations. People in Fra...
Find out what the expression "mon ami" means and how to use it correctly in the French language!

What are the 6 possessive adjectives? ›

Examples of possessive adjectives include his, her, my, its, your and their. Examples of possessive pronouns include mine, yours, his, hers and theirs.

What are the 10 prepositions in French? ›

10 Essential French Prepositions
  • 1 – à (to, at, in + city). ...
  • 2 – de (from, of, about). ...
  • 3 – chez (at/to someone's place). ...
  • 4 – en (in, by). ...
  • 5 – sur ≠ sous (on ≠ under). ...
  • 6 – au dessus de ≠ en dessous de (above ≠ under – without touching the object)
16 Jun 2021

What are 3 examples of a possessive adjective? ›

The most commonly used possessive adjectives are my, your, his, her, its, our, their, and whose. In order, these adjectives correspond to the pronouns I, you, he, she, it, we, they, and who. As their name suggests, possessive adjectives are often used to express possession or ownership.

What are the five possessive adjectives? ›

As their names imply, both possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns show ownership. The independent possessive pronouns are mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, and theirs. The possessive adjectives, also called possessive determiners, are my, our, your, his, her, its, and their.

What are the 7 tenses in French? ›

French Indicative Verb Tenses
  • Présent (present) ...
  • Imparfait (imperfect) ...
  • Passé simple (simple past) ...
  • Passé composé (past perfect) ...
  • Futur simple (future simple) ...
  • Plus-que-parfait (pluperfect) ...
  • Passé antérieur (past anterior)
  • Futur antérieur (future anterior)
18 Sept 2020

What are the 70 simple prepositions? ›

In the English language we have approximately 70 simple prepositions.
This article is about 1. Simple Prepositions — enjoy your reading!
Simple PrepositionsSimple PrepositionsSimple Prepositions
4 more rows

What are 150 prepositions? ›

Prepositions are common in the English language. There are about 150 used with the most common being: above, across, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, by, down, from, in, into, near, of, off, on, to, toward, under, upon, with and within.


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